The Syllabus

This syllabus, designed around a typical 12-15 week university course, reflects the suggestions of contributors from across the globe. Submissions were solicited via Twitter and Facebook, debated in internet fora, and selected to serve as a snapshot of the best of current and past scholarship. It is not meant to be definitive. Instead, it should serve as a foundation or guide for future study into the commonalities and differences between fascist, populist, and authoritarian movements and what they can tell us about present day concerns.

Included here are films, memoirs, books and articles on many varieties of right-wing authoritarianism. Some material was produced at the time; others are reflections, scholarly as well as personal. We have provided links to Google Books whenever possible, to help readers locate these sources. University libraries are the best place to look to find many of them, although a good many of these sources may be found at your local library or ordered in via lending agreements. Ask your local librarian for help.

“Interrogating the Past” offers a historical overview of fascist, populist, and right-leaning and/or authoritarian movements around the globe. Because the wide availability of crowd-sourced syllabi on US American history, we have not replicated their work but rather focused on other regions. Trump SyllabusTrump Syllabus 2.0 and Trump Syllabus 3.0 are good places to get started for readings on US American history. For commentary on the present moment in the United States and elsewhere, click “Interrogating the Present.”

This is a work in progress, with some sections richer in content than others. We welcome your suggestions for filling out the syllabus.

The syllabus includes materials that should be useful for discussion, debate, and critique. Inclusion of an item does not indicate NFS’s endorsement of the author’s analysis or opinion.



Question(s) to Consider:

  1. Why a crowdsourced syllabus?


Elizabeth Heineman. “Why a ‘New Fascism’ Syllabus?” The New Fascism Syllabus. 19 November 2016.

Ellen C. Caldwell. “Teaching Trump: The Rise of the Crowd-Sourced Syllabus.” JSTOR Daily. 1 December 2016.

Week 1: Definitions / Frameworks

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. What are fascism, populism, and authoritarianism?
  2. How do we understand the relationships among them?
  3. How can we interrogate the relevance of these categories today?


Benjamin, Walter. "Theories of German Fascism on the Collection of Essays War and Warrior, edited by Ernst Jünger." Die Gesellschaft 7:2 (1930): 32-41.

Finkelstein, Federico. From Fascism to Populism in History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2017.

Gilroy, Paul. Against Race. Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2002.

Gordon, Linda. "What Do We Mean by Populism? The “Second” Klan as a Case Study." Perspectives on History: The Newsmagazine of the American Historical Association. (September 2017).

Griffin, Roger. The Nature of Fascism. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Hawkins, Keith. "Is Chavez Populist? Measuring Populist Discourse in Comparative Perspective." Comparative Political Studies 42 (2009): 1040-67.

Ionescu, Ghita and Ernest Gellner, eds. Populism: Its Meaning and National Character. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1969.

Kazin, Michael. The Populist Persuasion. An American Century. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998. (Especially the "Introduction" and Chapter 1: "Inheritance.")

Lacquer, Walter. Fascism. Past, Present, Future (London: Oxford University Press, 1997)

Mann, Michael. Fascism. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998).

Müller, Jan-Werner. What is Populism? Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.

Mudde, Cas and Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser. Populism: A Very Short History. Oxford: University of Oxford Press, 2017.

Neumann, Franz. The Democratic and Authoritarian State: Essays in Political and Legal Theory. Glencoe: Free Press, 1957. (Especially pp. 270-300.)

—————, "Anxiety and Politics." tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique. First published in 1957; Republished in 2017.

Norton, Robert E. "Ernst Kantorowic: Man of Two Bodies." Times Literary Supplement. February 22, 2017.

Orwell, George. "What is Fascism?" The Tribune. 1944.

Sternhell, Zeev. "Fascist Ideology," in Walter Laqueur, ed., Fascism: A Reader's Guide — Analyses, Interpretations, Bibliography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), pp. 315-376.

Woodward, C. Vann. "The Populist Heritage and the Intellectual." The American Scholar 29 (1959-60): 55-72.

Team Populism (Brigham Young University).

Week 2: Origins / Intellectual Influences

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. How did fascist, populist, and authoritarian parties and governments tap contemporary concerns to promote their agendas? 
  2. What role did factors like race, nationalism, political economy, mass violence, and response to other political strands play in how they sought support?


Adorno, Theordor, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson, and Nevitt Sanford. The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1950.

Bernays, Edward. Propaganda. New York: Routledge, 1928.

Eco, Umberto. "Ur-Fascism." New York Review of Books. June 22, 1995.

Mosse, George. The Crisis of German Ideology. Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich. Little Hampton Book Services, 1966.

Frederickson, George M. “The Rise of Modern Racism: White Supremacy and Antisemitism in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.” In Racism: A Short History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Griffin, Roger. “I Am No Longer a Human I am a Titan! A god! The Fascist Quest to Regenerate Time.” In Mark Feldman, ed. A Fascist Century. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Havel, Vaclav. "The Power of the Powerless". 1978.

Le Bon, Gustav. The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1895.

Mussolini, Benito and Giovanni Gentile. "The Doctrine of Fascism." Enciclopedia Italiana. 1932.

Paxton, Robert O. The Anatomy of Fascism. New York: Vintage, 2005.

Payne, Stanley G. A History of Fascism: 1914-1945. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996.

Sternhell, Zeev. The Birth of Fascist Ideology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 1995.

Week 3: Between the Wars – Ideology / Culture, Everyday Life, and the State

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. In what way did the years between 1919 and 1939 distill fascism into its modern elements?
  2. To what extend did fascism and authoritarianism shape everyday life?


Nagorski, Andrew. "Nazi Violence Through American Eyes." The Atlantic, March 13, 2013.

Benjamin, Walter. "Moscow Diary." October 35 (Winter 1985): 4+9-135.

Berend, Ivan T. Decades of Crisis: Central and Eastern Europe Before World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Fallada, Hans. Little Man What Now? Brooklyn: Melville House, 2009.

Ferris, Kate. Everyday Life in Fascist Venice. Houdsmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Herf, Jeffrey. Reactionary Modernism? Technology, Culture and Politics in Weimar and Nazi Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Klemperer, Victor. Language of the Third Reich: LTI: Lingua Tertii Imperii. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2006.

Fitzpatrick, Sheila. Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Roth, John. What I Saw: Reports from Berlin 1920-1933. New York: W.W Norton, 2004.

Week 4: Italy

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. What was Fascism's initial socio-political program? And to what extent did those early objectives change and evolve during its conquest of power between the mid- to late-1920s?
  2. Mussolini's dictatorship boasted itself as a "totalitarian" form of government, meaning that the State's authority was supreme, unquestioned, and permanent. But how "totalitarian" was Il Duce's Fascist Government in practice?


 Ben-Ghiat, Ruth. Fascist Modernities: Italy, 1922-1945. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

—————, and M. Fuller. Italian Colonialism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Bessel, Richard. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: Comparisons and Contrasts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Bosworth, R. J. B. Mussolini’s Italy: Life Under the Fascist Dictatorship, 1915-1945. New York: Penguin, 2007.

Cardoza, Anthony L. Agrarian Elites and Italian Fascism: The Province of Bologna, 1901-1926. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.

Levi, Carlo. Christ Stopped at Eboli: The Story of a Year. New York: Farrar, Straus And Company, 1947.

Corner, Paul. The Fascist Party and Popular Opinion in Mussolini’s Italy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Duggan, Christopher. Fascist Voices: An Intimate History of Mussolini’s Italy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Falasca-Zamponi, Simonetta. Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini’s Italy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Fogu, Claudio. The Historic Imaginary: Politics of History in Fascist Italy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

De Grazia, Victoria. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

—————. The Culture of Consent: Mass Organisation of Leisure in Fascist Italy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Griffin, Roger. Modernism and Fascism: The Sense of a Beginning under Mussolini and Hitler. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Helstosky, Carol. "Fascist Food Politics: Mussolini’s Policy of Alimentary Sovereignty." Journal of Modern Italian Studies 9:1 (March 1, 2004): 1-26.

Landy, Marcia. Fascism in Film: The Italian Commercial Cinema, 1931-1943. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.

Lazzaro, Claudia, and Roger J. Crum. Donatello Among the Blackshirts: History and Modernity in the Visual Culture of Fascist Italy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.

Mammone, Andrea. Transnational Neofascism in France and Italy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Mussolini, Benito and Giovanni Gentile. "The Doctrine of Fascism." Enciclopedia Italiana. 1932.

Passerini, Luisa. Fascism in Popular Memory: The Cultural Experience of the Turin Working Class (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987

Reich, Jacqueline, and Piero Garofalo. Re-Viewing Fascism: Italian Cinema, 1922-1943. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002.

Ricci, Steven. Cinema and Fascism: Italian Film and Society, 1922–1943. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Rodogno, Davide. Fascism’s European Empire: Italian Occupation During the Second World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Stone, Marla. The Fascist Revolution in Italy: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2012.

—————. The Patron State: Culture & Politics in Fascist Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Willson, Perry. Peasant Women and Politics in Facist Italy: The Massaie Rurali. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Week 5: Germany

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. Hitler's Germany drew on nationalist principles from before the 20th century, honed and shaped through street fighting and democratic crisis. How did Germany's legacy differentiate Nazism from the fascism of Mussolini?
  2. What role did racial ideology, antisemitism, rapidly changing sexual and gender norms, and the experience of mass violence play in shaping the particular brand of authoritarianism that took root in Germany? 
  3. How was Nazism experienced in Germany?


Adorno, Theodor W., and Thomas Y. Levin. "On the Question: 'What Is German?'" New German Critique, 36 (1985): 121-31.

Bergen, Doris. Twisted Cross: The German Christian Movement in the Third Reich. Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Bessel, Richard. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: Comparisons and Contrasts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Cohen, Peter. Undergångens Arkitektur. Documentary, History, 1989.

Färberböck, Max. Aimee & Jaguar. Biography, Drama, Romance, 1999.

Friedländer, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews, Volume 1: The Years of Persecution, 1933-39. New York: Harper Perennial, 1998.

Fritzsche, Peter. Germans Into Nazis. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Gellately, Robert. Backing Hitler. Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Haneke, Michael. The White Ribbon. Drama, Mystery, 2010.

Heck, Alfons. A Child of Hitler: Germany in the Days When God Wore a Swastika. Phoenix: Primer Publishers, 2005.

Heller, André, and Othmar Schmiderer. Blind Spot: Hitler’s Secretary. Documentary, Biography, War, 2002.

Herf, Jeffrey. Reactionary Modernism? Technology, Culture and Politics in Weimar and Nazi Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Herzog, Dagmar “Hubris and Hypocrisy, Incitement and Disavowal: Sexuality and German Fascism,” in Sexuality and German Fascism, ed. Dagmar Herzog. New York, 2005, pg. 22-66.

Hirschbiegel, Oliver. Downfall. Biography, Drama, History, 2005.

Kaplan, Marion. Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Kershaw, Ian. Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris. New York; London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1998.

Kershaw, Ian. The 'Hitler Myth': Image and Reality in the Third Reich. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Kersaw, Ian. Hitler 1936-1945: Nemesis. London: Penguin Books, 2001.

Klemperer, Victor. Language of the Third Reich: LTI: Lingua Tertii Imperii. London: Bloomsbury, 2006.

Kluger, Ruth. Still Alive. A Holocaust Girlhood Remembered. New York: The Feminist Press at CUNY, 2003.

Koonz, Claudia. The Nazi ConscienceBoston: Harvard University Press, 2003.

Kraume, Lars. The People vs. Fritz Bauer. Biography, Drama, Thriller, 2015.

Maier, Charles S. The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity. Harvard University Press, 1988.

Mosse, George. The Crisis of German Ideology. Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich. New York : Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.

Roseman, Mark. The Villa, the Lake, the Meeting: The Wannsee Conference and the 'Final Solution'. New York: Penguin, 2002.

Rothemund, Marc. Sophie Scholl: The Final Days. Biography, Crime, Drama, 2005.

Shortland, Cate. Lore. Drama, Romance, Thriller, 2012.

Szabó, István. Mephisto. Drama, 1982.

Teege, Jennifer. My Grandfather Would Have Shot Me: A Black Woman Discovers Her Family's Nazi Heritage. New York: The Experiment, 2015.

Wachsmann, Nikolas. KL: A History of Nazi Concentration Camps. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2016.

Week 6: France

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. Coming soon.


Passmore, Kevin. Fascism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

—————. The Right in France from the Third Republic to Vichy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Sternhell, Zeev. Neither Right Nor Left: Fascist Ideology in France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

Irvine, William. "Fascism in France and the Strange Case of the Croix de Feu." The Journal of Modern History 63:2 (June 1991): 271-295.

Kennedy, Sean. Reconciling France Against Democracy: The Croix de Feu and Parti Social Français, 1927-1945. Montreal/Kingston: McGillQueen's University Press, 2007.

————— and Samuel Kalman. The French Right Between the Wars: Political and Intellectual Movements from Conservatism to Fascism. New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2014.

Week 7: Spain & Portugal

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. Why do some scholars see the Iberian Peninsula as the crucible of conflict between fascism and communism?
  2. What were the historical conditions for the rise of fascism in Spain and Portugal, and what explains fascism's tenacity there?
  3. How was "clerico-fascism" or its variants experienced in Spain and Portugal?


Blinkhorn, Martin. "Conservatism, Traditionalism and Fascism in Spain, 1898-1937." In Blinkhorn, Martin ed. Fascists and Conservatives: The Radical Right and the Establishment in 20th-Century Europe, pp. 118-137. London: Routledge, 1990.

Bowen, Wayne H. Spaniards and Nazi Germany: Collaboration in the New Order. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001.

Cowans, Jon. Modern Spain: A Documentary History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003.

Cuerda, José Luis. Butterfly. Drama, 2000.

Crumbaugh, Justin. Destination Dictatorship: The Spectacle of Spain's Tourist Boom and the Reinvention of Difference. New York: SUNY Press, 2009.

Costa Pinto, António. The Blue Shirts: Portuguese Fascists and the New State. Boulder; New York: Social Science Monographs, 2000.

—————. Salazar's Dictatorship and European Fascism: Problems of Interpretation. Boulder; New York: Social Science Monographs, 1996.

Ellwood, Shelagh. Spanish Fascism in the Franco Era: Falange Española de las Jons, 1936–76. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

Preston, Paul. The Politics of Revenge: Fascism and the Military in 20th Century Spain. London: Routledge, 1995.

Gallagher, Tom. "Conservatism, dictatorship and fascism in Portugal, 1914-45." In Blinkhorn, Martin, ed., Fascists and Conservatives: The Radical Right and the Establishment in 20th-century Europe, pp. 157-175. London: Routledge, 1990.

Gelhorn, Martha. The Face of War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1959.

Kaplan, Temma. Red City, Blue Period: Social Movements in Picasso's Blue Period. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Loach, Ken. Land and Freedom. Drama, War, 1996.

Marias, Javier. Your Face Tomorrow. New York: New Directions, 2005.

Orwell, George. Homage to Catalonia. New York: Penguin Classics, 1980.

Pack, Sasha. Tourism and Dictatorship: Europe’s Peaceful Invasion of Franco’s Spain. New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2006.

Picasso, Pablo. Guernica. 1937.

Preston, Paul. "Populism and Parasitism: The Falange and the Spanish Establishment, 1939-1975." In Blinkhorn, Martin ed. Fascists and Conservatives: The Radical Right and the Establishment in 20th-Century Europe, pp. 138-156. London: Routledge, 1990.

Rodríguez, Alberto. Marshland. Crime, Thriller, 2014.

Del Toro, Guillermo. Pan’s Labyrinth. Drama, Fantasy, War, 2007.

—————. The Devil’s Backbone. Drama, Horror, 2001.

Week 8: Eastern Europe

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. How did East Europe's history of nationalism, agrarian populism, and client relationships to "Great Powers" shape the forms of right-wing authoritarianism that took root there?
  2. What was the experience of both "home-grown" and externally-imposed fascist or Nazi rule in East Europe?


Berend, Ivan T. Decades of Crisis: Central and Eastern Europe before WW II. Berkeley: University of California Press: 1998.

Goldstein, Slavko. 1941: The Year that Keeps Returning (New York Review of Books, 2013).

Hanebrink, Paul. In Defense of Christian Hungary: Religion, Nationalism and Anti-Semitism, 1890-1944. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006.

Haynes, Rebecca and Martyn Rady, eds. In the Shadow of Hitler: Personalities of the Right in Central and Eastern Europe. London: I.B. Tauris & Co., 2011.

Ionid, Radu. "The Sacralised Politics of the Romanian Iron Guard." Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 5:3: 419-453.

Iordachi, Constantin. "Charisma, Religion, and Ideology: Romania’s Interwar Legion of the Archangel Michael." In John Lampe and Mark Mazower, eds., Ideologies and National Identities: The Case of Twentieth-Century Southeastern Europe. Budapest: Central European University Press, 2013.

Lazaridis, Gabriella, Giovanna Campani, and Annie Benveniste. The Rise of the Far Right in Europe. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Nagy-Talavera, Nicholas. The Green Shirts and Others: A History of Fascism in Hungary and Romania. Iasi: Center for Romanian Studies, 2001.

Paternotte, David and Roman Kuhar, eds. Anti-Gender Campaigns in Europe: Mobilizing Against Equality. London: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017.

Riley, Dylan. The Civic Foundations of Fascism in Italy, Spain, and Romania, 1870-1945. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.

Sandulescu, Valentin. "Fascism and Its Quest for the 'New Man': The Case of the Romanian Legionary Movement." Studia Hebraica 4 (2004): 349-61.

Tamás, G. M. "The Mystery of Populism is Finally Unveilled." openDemocracy: Free Thinking for the World. February 24, 2017.

Tuğal, Cihan. The Fall of the Turkish Model. How the Arab Uprisings Brought Down Islamic Liberalism. (London: Verso, 2016). 

Mueller, Jan-Werner. What is Populism? Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.

Kadár, Ján, and Elmar Klos. The Shop on Main Street. Drama, 1966.

Week 9: Imperial Japan / The Pacific World

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. How did Japan's extraordinary climb to Great Power status in a world dominated by the West evolve into ideologies of racial superiority and practices of colonialism?
  2. How did Japanese and colonial subjects experience Japan's years of right-authoritarian rule?


Lisa Yoneyama, Hiroshima Traces: Time, Space, and the Dialectics of Memory (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999)

Yukiko Koga, Inheritance of Loss: China, Japan, and the Political Economy of Redemption after Empire (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016)

Yoshiaki Yoshimi, Grassroots Fascism: The War Experience of the Japanese People (New York: Columbia University Press, 2015)

Reto Hofmann, The Fascist Effect: Japan and Italy, 1915–1952 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2015)

Alan Tansman, The Culture of Japanese Fascism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009)

Louise Young, Japan’s Total Empire: Manchuria and the Culture of Wartime Imperialism (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999)

Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea 1876-1945 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014)

Week 10: Latin America

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. How did Latin America's history of "strong-man" rule evolve into populism in the mid 20th century?
  2. Largely spared the devastation of World War II, Latin America found itself under intense pressure during the Cold War. How did external and internal forces shape the late 20th-century era of dictatorship and dirty wars?
  3. How did Latin Americans experience dictatorship, dirty war, and the transition to peace?


Populism and Authoritarianism, 1930s-1960s

Deutsch, Sandra McGee. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999.

Finchelstein, Federico. Transatlantic Fascism: Ideology, Violence, and the Sacred in Argentina and Italy, 1919-1945. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.

Knight, Alan. "Populism and Neo-Populism in Latin America, Especially Mexico." Journal of Latin American Studies 30.2 (May 1998): 223-248.

Gould, Jeffrey. “Nicaragua.” In Leslie Bethell and Ian Roxborough, eds. Latin America between the Second World War and the Cold War, 1944-1948. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Plotkin, Mariano Ben. Mañana es San Perón: A Cultural History of Perón’s Argentina. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2003.

Karush, Matthew B. and Oscar Chamosa, eds. The New Cultural History of Peronism: Power and Identity in Mid-Twentieth-Century Argentina. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.

Derby, Lauren. The Dictator’s Seduction: Politics and the Popular Imagination in the Era of Trujillo. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009.

Turits, Richard Lee. Foundations of Despotism: Peasants, the Trujillo Regime, and Modernity in Dominican History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.

Power, Margaret. Right-Wing Women in Chile: Feminine Power and the Struggle against Allende, 1964-1973. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002.


Dictatorships and Dirty Wars, 1960s-1990s

Davila, Jerry. Dictatorship in South America. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell, 2013.

Schirmer, Jennifer. The Guatemalan Military Project: A Violence Called Democracy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Feitlowitz, Marguerite. A Lexicon of Terror: Argentina and the Legacies of Torture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Stern, Steve J. Battling for Hearts and Minds: Memory Struggles in Pinochet’s Chile, 1973-1988. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.

Weld, Kristen. Paper Cadavers: The Archives of Dictatorship in Guatemala. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2014.


Latin American Populisms, 2000-Present

De la Torre, Carlos. Populist Seduction in Latin America. Columbus, OH: Ohio University Press, 2010.

————— and Cynthia J. Arnson, eds. Latin American Populism in the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.


Films, Literature, and Primary Source Documents

Asturias, Miguel Angel. El señor presidente. Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica, 2000.

Danticat, Edwidge. The Farming of Bones. New York: Penguin, 1999.

Desanzo, Juan Carlos. Eva Peron: The True Story. Biography, Drama, History, 1996.

Guzmán, Patricio. Chile, the Obstinate Memory. Documentary, 1999.

—————. The Battle of Chile: Part I. Documentary, 1975.

—————. The Battle of Chile: Part II. Documentary, 1976.

—————. The Battle of Chile: Part III. Documentary, 1979.

—————. The Pinochet Case. Documentary, 2001.

Martínez, Gabriela. Keep Your Eyes on Guatemala. Documentary. 2014.

Martínez, Tomás Eloy. The Perón Novel. Vintage International, 1999.

Nunca Más: The Report of the Argentine National Commission on the Disappeared. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux, 1986.

Puenzo, Luis. The Official Story. Drama, History, War, 1985.

Report of the Chilean National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation (two volumes). Translated by Phillip E. Berryman. South Bend, IL: University of Notre Dame Press, 1993.

Rothenberg, Daniel, ed. Memory of Silence: The Guatemalan Truth Commission Report. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Week 11: Middle East

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. How did the the legacy of colonialism and anti-colonial activity shape the Arab Middle East's response to European fascism? How did concerns about Zionism intersect with the response to European fascism?
  2. What are the characteristics of clerical and non-clerical authoritarian states in the Middle East in the late 20th and early 21st century?
  3. How did Zionism's intersecting concerns of liberalism, nationalism, and colonialism - together with Holocaust memory - intersect to create exclusionary authoritarian strands in Israel?


Interwar/WWII Fascism

Gershoni, Israel, ed. Arab Responses to Fascism and Nazism: Attraction and Repulsion. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2015.

————— and James Jankowski. Confronting Fascism in Egypt: Dictatorship versus Democracy in the 1930s. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009.

Nordbruch, Götz. Nazism in Syria and Lebanon: The Ambivalence of the German Option, 1933–1945. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Tamir, Dan. "From a Fascist's Notebook to the Principles of Rebirth: The Desire for Social Integration in Hebrew Fascism, 1928-1942." The Historical Journal 57:4 (2014): 1057-1084.

—————. "Some Thoughts about Hebrew Fascism in Inter-war Palestine." Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte 63:4 (2011): 364-381.

Wien, Peter. Iraqi Arab Nationalism: Authoritarian, Totalitarian and Pro-Fascist Inclinations, 1932–1941. New York: Routledge, 2006.


Holocaust Memory in the Middle East

Achcar, Gilbert. The Arabs and the Holocaust: The Arab-Israeli War of Narratives. Translated by G. M. Goshgarian. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2010.

Segev, Tom. The Seventh Million: The Israelis and the Holocaust. Translated by Haim Watzman. New York: Henry Holt, 1991.

Zertal, Idith. Israel's Holocaust and the Politics of Nationhood. Translated by Chaya Galai. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.


Authoritarianism in the Arab Middle East

Lust-Okar, Ellen. Structuring Conflict in the Arab World: Incumbents, Opponents, and Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Pratt, Nicola. Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Arab World. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2005.

Sassoon, Joseph.  Anatomy of Authoritarianism in the Arab RepublicsCambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Schlumberger, Oliver, ed. Debating Arab Authoritarianism: Dynamics and Durability in Nondemocratic Regimes. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008.

Tuğal, Cihan. The Fall of the Turkish Model. How the Arab Uprisings Brought Down Islamic Liberalism. (London: Verso, 2016). 


Novels and Short Stories on Arab Authoritarianism

Bakr, Salwa. The Golden Chariot. Reading, UK: Garnet, 1995.

Mahfouz, Naguib. The Day the Leader Was Killed. New York: Anchor, 2000.

Tamir, Zakariya. Tigers on the Tenth Day and Other Stories. Translated by Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Quartet Books, 1985.


Primary Sources on Arab Authoritarianism

Beshara, Adel. Antun Sa'adeh: The Man, His Thought: An Anthology. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 2007.


Zionism and Israel

Aran, Gideon and Ron E. Hassner. "Religious Violence in Judaism: Past and Present." Terrorism and Political Violence 25:3 (2013): 355-405.

El-Or, Tamar and Gideo Aran. "Giving Birth to a Settlement: Maternal Thinking and Political Action of Jewish Women on the West Bank." Gender and Society 9:1 (1995): 60-78.

Yael Hirschhorn, Sara. City on a Hilltop: American Jews and the Israeli Settler Movement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017.

Kuntsman, Adi and Rebecca L. Stein. Digital Militarism: Israel's Occupation in the Social Media Age. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2015.

Lustick, Ian S. "Making Sense of the Nakba: Ari Shavit, Baruch Marzel, and Zionist Claims to Territory." Journal of Palestine Studies 44:2 (2015): 7-27.

Robinson, Shira. Citizen Strangers: Palestinians and the Birth of Israel's Liberal Settler State. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013.

Robson, Laura. States of Separation: Transfer, Partition, and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2017.

Week 12: Indonesia / South Asia

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. How did the history of colonialsm and partition contribute to the rise of nationalist-right parties in India
  2. What are the particular characteristics of the Hindu Right?


Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Hindu Nationalism

Doniger, Wendy and Martha Nussbaum ed. Pluralism and Democracy in India: Debating the Hindu Right. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Basu, Amrita. Violent Conjunctures in Democratic India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

—————. "The Changing Fortunes of the Bharatiya Janata Party." In Atul Kohli and Prerna Singh, eds., Handbook of Indian Politics. London; New York: Routledge, 2012.


Women and Hindu Nationalism

Basu, Amrita. "Rethinking Communalism and Fundamentalism: Women's Activism and Religious Politics in India." Journal of Women’s History 10:4 (Winter 1999): pp. 136-172.

Jeffery and Basu eds., Appropriating Gender: Women’s Activism and Politicized Religion in South Asia (NY: Routledge 1997, New Delhi: Kali for Women, 1998)

Amrita Basu “Hindu Women’s Activism and the Questions that it Raises,” Betsy Reed ed., Nothing Sacred: Women Respond to Religious Fundamentalism and Terror (NY: Thunder Mout,h Press/Nation Books, 2002)

Manisha Sethi, “Avenging Angels and Nurturing Mothers: Women in Hindu Nationalism,” Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 37, No. 16 (Apr. 20-26, 2002), pp. 1545-1552

Kalyani Menon, Everyday Nationalism: Women of the Hindu Right in India (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010)



In the Name of Ram, dir. Anand Patwardhan, 1992

Father, Son and Holy War, dir Anand Patwardhan, 1994

The Boys in the Branch, dir. Lalit Vachani, 1993

The Men in the Tree, dir. Lalit Vachani, 2002

The World Before Her, dir. Nisha Pahuja, 2012


Online Sources


Primary Sources

Christophe Jaffrelot, ed. Hindu Nationalism: A Reader (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009)

Week 13: Late 20th Century / Early 21st Century

Question(s) to Consider:

  1. Question(s) coming soon.


Orbán, Victor. "Viktor Orbán's Speech at the 14th Kötcse Civil Picnic." Speech, Kötcse, Hungary, September 17, 2015. Website of the Hungarian Government.

Excerpt of Speech: "My position is that what we are experiencing now is the end of an era: a conceptual-ideological era. Putting pretension aside, we can simply call this the era of liberal babble. This era is now at an end, and this situation both carries a huge risk and offers a new opportunity. It offers the chance for the national-Christian ideology, way of thinking and approach to regain dominance – not only in Hungary, but throughout the whole of Europe."

Art, David. Inside the Radical Right: The Development of Anti-Immigrant Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Betz,Hans-Georg.  Radical Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1994.

Ford, Robert and Matthew Goodwin, Revolt on the Right: Explaining Support for the Radical Right in Britain. London; New York: Routledge, 2004.

Givens, Terri E. Voting Radical Right in Western Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Kaplan, Jerry and Leonard Weinberg. The Emergence of a Euro-American Radical Right. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998.

Mammone, Andrea and Emmanuel Godin Brian Jenkins. Mapping the Extreme Right in Contemporary Europe: From Local to Transnational. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Mudde, Cas. Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.